The principles and foundations of graphic design are the distinguishing between designer and non-designer. The comprehension of the principles of design is scientifically and practically the right place for every novice in the field of design, after the knowledge of the design elements, and many of these principles are discretionary and subject to the designer’s sense and feel. Appreciation by continuous practice, and deep reflection on professional designs, these foundations are the result of accumulated experience that has evolved over time.
We have dealt with the elements of graphic design and what is the design and the functions of each element, which is an important beginning before starting to address the principles of artistic design.
Principles and principles of graphic design
I. Unity and Proximity Proximity:
The meaning of the unit is the component of the design of graphic design, that is, the existence of a relationship between these elements, and the relationship may be formalized by standardizing the pattern of drawing shapes such as the pattern of geometric shapes or the pattern of curved lines or decorative pattern, and may be colored relationship, standardization of the coloring system used, The unit of idea, ie, the introduction of a single subject or idea without distraction, as well as the unit of style as a choice of flat design style, 2D design or 3D design.
As for convergence, it is meant to put similar blocks under one classification or grouped in one area in a close or adjacent, it appears as a single block, making it easy for the viewer to understand the work of art as a whole at a glance.
II Balance Balance:
Linguistic is the equal weight, and in the field of graphic design is a sense of design and stability, ie equivalent elements in design, and the balance of blocks generates a sense of comfort, Altawan 3 types:
Axial equilibrium: On either side of a vertical axis, the balance may be symmetrical, in which the shapes, blocks, and lines on both sides of the painting are identical. The balance may be uneven and the shapes do not match. They may vary in color, shape, texture, etc
Radiation balance: any rotation around a point or mass of a fulcrum
This balance is not easy. It may depend on complex factors of color weight estimation, proportion of proportional space around shapes, proximity or dimension Blocks on the axis of the illusion, and many other factors.
The designer can achieve balance by repeating shapes, changing sizes, distributing clusters near and away from the focus axis, and placement of blanks.
Criteria for calculating balance:
Size: Large blocks have higher optical weight than small blocks.
Color: The higher color saturation is visually heavier than the slightly saturated color, the darker color is visually heavier than the light, and the chromatic grading depends on the designer’s sense.
Position: The mass away from the focus axis is visually heavier than the proximal mass.
Complexity: The mass of the complex form is visually heavier than the regular mass.
Third: Movement Movement and Rhythm Rhythm:
The movement is a sense of the viewer’s presence within the movement of graphic design, a sense of the distribution of elements in a manner that suggests movement, and control the way the movement of the eye in the successive design, and movements trends and forms, and may be fast or slow, and the movement of design to make it vital.
Examples of movement are: repetition of a shape with different modes of motion, the use of moving images such as flapping of hair or hair to express wind, the use of arrows and lines for eye movement, as well as the use of colors in a way that determines the beginning of the direction of eye movement and then moves with color movement and flow within the design .
Rhythm is a musical term that expresses a repetitive melody or tone. The design expresses a movement that has a special effect that lends gravity to the design and avoids boredom. The rhythm is achieved through repetition, variation or gradation.
Examples of rhythm:
Repeated block with color change, a monotonous rhythm.
Repeat the block with the change of color, size and shape, a ruthless rhythm.
Repeated mass decreases, a decreasing rhythm.
Repeated block increasingly, an increasing rhythm.
The design of a streamlined movement such as water flow, a smooth rhythm
The difference is the degree of contrast between the adjacent and adjacent elements within the graphic design, and the purpose of the contrast is to show and distinguish the design elements from each other, the greater the contrast the greater the clarity, and the variation of color or size or line or spacing, etc., the presence of contrasting colors shows Format or text, having small sizes and large sizes illustrates the difference between the two shapes.
V. Dominance or Focus Emphasis:
Focus or Sovereignty is to highlight a certain part of the design, to draw attention and direct the eye to it, so that this segment captures the interest of the viewer, and focuses on it, and can achieve this focus in many ways.
Examples of Focus and Sovereignty:
Draw guidelines indicating the status of sovereignty.
Distinguishing the status of sovereignty in different colors or lighting.
Highlight the part to focus on and place it in the foreground.
The direction of sight, like a group turning its gaze towards the target.
Isolate the shape away from the crowd or multiple peers.
Make a framework around the important part.
Focus can also be achieved by distinguishing the size or position or changing the font type in case of text.
Formatting means the distribution of elements in a neat and not random manner within the graphic design area. The order of the elements is achieved by alignment, either from the edges of the shapes or from the center lines, and the alignment may be straight, curved or dependent on a chart.
The better design should take into account the correct proportion between the blocks and the spaces, and the larger the size of the blocks we needed a larger space, and the proportion includes sizes, spaces, images, text and colors, for example take into account the proportion of the size of the title and the size of the text, and the proportion between colors.